An integrative approach to characterize cryptic species in the Thoracostoma trachygaster Hope, 1967 complex (Nematoda: Leptosomatidae)

Daniel Apolonio Silva De Oliveira, Wilfrida Decraemer, Oleksander Holovachov, Jay Burr, Irma Tandingan De Ley, Paul De Ley, Tom Moens, Sofie Derycke

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    Abstract

    Nematode diversity may seriously be underestimated when taking into account cryptic speciation. Thoracostoma trachygaster is commonly found in kelp holdfasts along the California coastline and was recently shown to consist of at least two distinct molecular clades (I and II). Here, we provide detailed morphological analysis of both clades, based on measurements taken from video vouchers of respectively eight and 16 individuals from the previous study, as well as 80 newly collected specimens from four Californian beaches. The latter were vouchered, measured, and then subjected to molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene, and the ribosomal D2D3 and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. This integrative approach shows that the three molecular clades are phylogenetically and morphologically distinct species, but a combination of morphological characters is needed to distinguish them. Two new species, Thoracostoma fatimae sp. nov. and Thoracostoma igniferum sp. nov., are identified and described. The spicule length of T. fatimae sp. nov. is significantly shorter than that of T. trachygaster. Thoracostoma igniferum sp. nov. can be distinguished by the irregular posterior edge of the cephalic capsule and the two internal subdorsal tropis-like projections in the wall of the cephalic capsule, which are lacking in T. fatimae sp. nov. and T. trachygaster.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalZOOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY
    Volume164
    Issue number1
    Pages (from-to)18-35
    Number of pages18
    ISSN0024-4082
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1-Jan-2012

    Keywords

    • California
    • COI
    • D2D3
    • integrative taxonomy
    • ITS
    • marine
    • morphology

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