Beeswax residue analysis points to an alarming contamination: a Belgian case study

Jorgen Ravoet, Wim Reybroeck, Lina De Smet, Dirk de Graaf

    Research output: Contribution to conferenceC3: Conference - meeting abstract


    Beeswax from ten Belgian hives was analyzed for the presence of more than 300 organochlorine
    and organophosphorous compounds by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. Traces of 18 pesticides were
    found and not a single sample was free of residues. The number of residues found per sample
    ranged from 3 to 13, and the pesticides found could be categorized as i) pesticides solely for
    agricultural (crop protection) application, ii) pesticides for mixed agricultural and apicultural
    (veterinary) application.
    The frequencies and quantities of some environmental pollutants are reason for high concerns.
    Most alarming was the detection of lindane (gamma-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
    (DDT; including its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, DDE), two insecticides
    that are banned in Europe for several years or even decades. The present comprehensive residue
    analysis, however, also reveals residues of pesticides never found in beeswax before, i.e. DEET,
    propargite and bromophos
    Original languageEnglish
    Number of pages1
    Publication statusPublished - Nov-2015
    Event12th International Symposium ICP-PR - Bee Protection Group 'Hazards of pesticides to bees' - Gent, Belgium
    Duration: 15-Sep-201417-Sep-2014


    Symposium12th International Symposium ICP-PR - Bee Protection Group 'Hazards of pesticides to bees'

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