Performance of a Prototype Boom Sprayer for Bed-Grown Carrots Based on Canopy Deposition Optimization, Ground Losses and Spray Drift Potential Mitigation in Semi-Fiel Conditions

Aude Lamare, Ingrid Zwertvaegher, David Nuyttens, Paolo Balsari, Paolo Marucco, Marco Grella, Amedeo Caffini, Nikos Mylonas, Spyros Fountas, Jean-Paul Douzals

Research output: Contribution to journalA1: Web of Science-articlepeer-review


The H2020-project OPTIMA concept of smart sprayer relies on several functionalities, including variable nozzle spacing for bed-grown carrots, based on an air-assisted boom sprayer. A prototype boom was designed and evaluated though canopy deposition, ground losses, and spray drift potential. Four bed spray configurations, including various nozzle types, angles, and sizes (XR8004, combination of AIUB8504/AI11004, AI8004, and XR8002) at the most appropriate nozzle spacing and height, were tested and compared to a broadcast application (XR11004). Deposition measurements were performed on carrots in bins at early and full-grown stages with respective target zone width of 1.4 m and 2.2 m. Spray drift potential measurements were performed following ISO 22401, 2015. The spray boom was equipped with an air sleeve providing different air speeds (0, 4, 8 m s−1). The relative depositions at both growth stages showed a significant effect of spray configuration and lowest values were found for the broadcast application. The configurations consisting of air inclusion nozzles generated the lowest drift potential compared to the broadcast application, although not significantly different. Bed spray configurations can thus improve canopy depositions and spray drift potential compared to a conventional broadcast application when the boom height and the nozzle spacing are adjusted to the growth stage.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4462
JournalApplied Sciences
Issue number9
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 28-Apr-2022


  • air support
  • bed-grown crop
  • nozzle type
  • smart sprayer
  • spray deposition
  • spray drift potential

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