Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida are the most economically important nematode pests of potato in Europe causing an annual loss of approximately €220 million. PCN are managed by an integrated management approach including the use of crop rotation, nematicides and resistance. However, nematicides are costly and their use generates environmental concern. Resistant cultivars are not always responding to expected quality and high yielding cultivars resistant to G. pallida are limited in number. Therefore, the development of alternative methods for managing PCN is needed. Annually, a large amount of agricultural and agro-industrial waste is produced and available as fertilizer. Application of animal manures has been a traditional control method for plant-parasitic nematodes. New types of composts and organic materials are now available but their effects on PCN are unknown. Therefore, we studied the effect of 10 soil amendments (pig slurry, woody biochar, biochar-blended pig slurry, cattle slurry, farmyard manure, crab shell compost, biochar-blended crab shell compost, nitrogen fertilizer, wood chip compost and biochar-blended wood chip compost) on the survival and the reproduction of both PCN species. These amendments were mixed with a sandy soil and added to 2-liter-pots (survival test) or 4-liter pots (reproduction test). Non-amended soil was used as a control. Cysts of G. rostochiensis or G. pallida were placed in retrievable nylon bags and added to the soil in each pot. Pots were left outside, exposed to prevailing weather conditions, in a randomized design with 4 replicates. For the survival test, the viability of the cysts content was determined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks after soil infestation (WAI) by visual assessment and by measuring the trehalose content of the eggs. Results showed that exposure of cysts to pig slurry, nitrogen fertilizer and wood chip compost caused a reduction in the viability of eggs of PCN 8 and 16 WAI. The other amendments had no effect on the survival of Globodera species. To determine the effects of amendments on the reproduction of each Globodera species, one potato tuber was planted per pot and left to grow. Sixteen WAI, plants were harvested and nematode reproduction was determined. All amendments significantly reduced the reproduction of both species. Pig slurry caused the greatest reduction in the reproduction rate of PCN followed by wood chip compost and nitrogen fertilizer. Addition of biochar to some of the amendments resulted in more nematode reproduction compared with the application of each amendment alone. Our research demonstrated that application of certain agricultural and agro-industrial products affects cyst survival as well as reproduction when the host is present. These findings are important for managing PCN. The mechanisms involved in nematode suppression by soil amendments will be further investigated.
|Titel||Abstracts of the 19th triennial conference of the EAPR 2014|
|Publicatiestatus||Gepubliceerd - 2014|
|Evenement||19th Triennial Conference of the European Association for Potato Research - Merelbeke, Brussel, België|
Duur: 6-jul.-2014 → 11-jul.-2014