A novel, label-free folding induced aptamer-based electrochemical biosensor for the detection of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the presence of its analogues has been developed. CAP is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that has lost its favor due to its serious adverse toxic effects on human health. Aptamers are artificial nucleic acid ligands (ssDNA or RNA) able to specifically recognize a target such as CAP. In this article, the aptamers are fixed onto a gold electrode surface by a self-assembly approach. In the presence of CAP, the unfolded ssDNA on the electrode surface changes to a hairpin structure, bringing the target molecules close to the surface and triggering electron transfer. Detection limits were determined to be 1.6 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). In addition, thiamphenicol (TAP) and florfenicol (FF), antibiotics with a structure similar to CAP, did not influence the performance of the aptasensor, suggesting a good selectivity of the CAP-aptasensor. Its simplicity and low detection limit (because of the home-selected aptamers) suggest that the electrochemical aptasensor is suitable for practical use in the detection of CAP in milk samples.