Fenpyroximate resistance in Iranian populations of the European red mite Panonychus ulmi (Acari: Tetranychidae)

Razieh Yaghoobi, Jahangir Khajehali, Elaheh Shafiei Alavijeh, Ralf Nauen, Wannes Dermauw, Thomas Van Leeuwen

Onderzoeksoutput: Bijdrage aan tijdschriftA1: Web of Science-artikelpeer review


The European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), is one of the most important apple orchard pests worldwide. Fenpyroximate, a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor of complex I (METI-I), is a commonly used acaricide to control this pest. In this study, we determined fenpyroximate resistance levels for 11 P. ulmi populations from Iran and a spirodiclofen-resistant strain from Germany (PSR-TK). The LC50 values ranged between 121.8 and 5713.9 mg a.i. L−1 and the highest resistance ratio (RR) was 47-fold for the Padena population. PBO, TPP and DEM synergist ratios (SRs) were the highest for the PSR-TK (SR = 6.7), Shahin Dej (SR = 6.1) and Semirom3 (SR = 3.6) populations, respectively. In vitro enzyme activity measurements also showed that there was a higher glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) activity in the PSR-TK and Shahin Dej population compared to the most susceptible populations, whereas the esterase and P450 monooxygenase activity were not significantly higher in the resistant populations. Last, we screened all populations for the presence of two mutations previously associated with METI-I resistance in spider mites but none of these mutations could be detected. To conclude, moderate to high levels of fenpyroximate resistance were observed in P. ulmi populations from Iran, with increased detoxification most likely underlying fenpyroximate resistance.
Oorspronkelijke taalEngels
TijdschriftExperimental and Applied Acarology
Pagina's (van-tot)69-79
Aantal pagina’s11
PublicatiestatusGepubliceerd - 1-jan-2021


  • Detoxification enzymes
  • Fenpyroximate resistance
  • METI-I
  • PSST
  • Panonychus ulmi

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