Twenty-two pesticides and veterinary drugs of which residues were detected in beeswax in Europe were selected according to different criteria. The risk to honey bee health posed by the presence of these residues in wax was assessed based on three exposure scenarios. The first one corresponds to the exposure of larvae following their close contact with wax constituting the cells in which they develop. The second one corresponds to the exposure of larvae following consumption of the larval food that was contaminated from contact with contaminated wax. The third one corresponds to the exposure of adult honey bees following wax chewing when building cells and based on a theoretical worst-case scenario (= intake of contaminants from wax). Following these three scenarios, maximum concentrations which should not be exceeded in beeswax in order to protect honey bee health were calculated for each selected substance. Based on these values, provisional action limits were proposed. Beeswax exceeding these limits should not be put on the market.