The European Commission requested EFSA to assess if different thermal processes achieve a 5 log10 reduction in Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella Senftenberg (775W) and (if relevant) a 3 log10 reduction in thermoresistant viruses (e.g. Parvovirus) as well as if different chemical processes achieve a 3 log10 reduction of eggs of Ascaris sp., in eight groups of Category 2 and 3 derived products and animal by-products (ABP). These included (1) ash derived from incineration, co-incineration and combustion; (2) glycerine derived from the production of biodiesel and renewable fuels; (3) other materials derived from the production of biodiesel and renewable fuels; (4) hides and skins; (5) wool and hair; (6) feathers and down; (7) pig bristles; and (8) horns, horn products, hooves and hoof products. Data on the presence of viral hazards and on thermal and chemical inactivation of the targeted indicator microorganisms and biological hazards under relevant processing conditions were extracted via extensive literature searches. The evidence was assessed via expert knowledge elicitation. The certainty that the required log10 reductions in the most resistant indicator microorganisms or biological hazards will be achieved for each of the eight groups of materials mentioned above by the thermal and/or chemical processes was (1) 99–100% for the two processes assessed; (2) 98–100% in Category 2 ABP, at least 90–99% in Category 3 ABP; (3) 90–99% in Category 2 ABP; at least 66–90% in Category 3 ABP; (4) 10–66% and 33–66%; (5) 1–33% and 10–50%; (6) 66–90%; (7) 33–66% and 50–95%; (8) 66–95%, respectively. Data generation on the occurrence and reduction of biological hazards by thermal and/or chemical methods in these materials and on the characterisation of the usage pathways of ABP as organic fertilisers/soil improvers is recommended.