This study reports two novel selective differential media. A first differential medium can be applied in methods for the isolation of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes (O26, O103, O111 and O145) from food or faeces. A second differential medium was designed for both sorbitol-positive and -negative O157 STEC strains. Selective differential media are based on a chromogenic compound to signal beta-galactosidase activity and one or more fermentative carbon sources. The chromogenic marker and carbohydrates were combined with a pH indicator and several inhibitory components, which resulted in highly specific differentiation media. Consecutive use of a serotype-dependent choice of confirmation media resulted in a very low incidence of false-positive isolates when comparing clinical STEC strains with a collection of commensal E. coli strains.