We have developed PotatoMASH (Potato Multi-Allele Scanning Haplotags), a novel low-cost, genome-scanning marker platform. We designed a panel of 339 multi-allelic regions placed at 1 Mb intervals throughout the euchromatic portion of the genome. These regions were assayed using a multiplex amplicon sequencing approach, which allows for genotyping hundreds of plants at a cost of 5 EUR/sample. We applied PotatoMASH to a population of over 700 potato lines. We obtained tetraploid dosage calls for 2012 short multi-allelic haplotypes in 334 loci, which ranged from 2 to 14 different haplotypes per locus. The system was able to diagnose the presence of targeted pest-resistance markers, to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a tetraploid population, and to track variation in a diploid segregating population. PotatoMASH efficiently surveys genetic variation throughout the potato genome, and can be implemented as a single low-cost genotyping platform that will allow the routine and simultaneous application of marker-assisted selection (MAS) and other genotyping applications in commercial potato breeding programmes.