Benzimidazoles are anthelmintic agents widely used in the treatment of parasitic infections in a range of species and as fungicidal agents in the control of spoilage of crops during storage and transport. In this paper, the more important benzimidazoles are introduced and their pharmacological effects and physiochemical properties discussed. The metabolism of these drugs is described relating to the occurrence and persistence of residues in biological matrices, providing information for selection of suitable matrices and target residues for testing. Methods for determination of benzimidazoles are reviewed for a range of biological matrices. The importance of selecting suitable extraction and clean-up procedures is discussed, along with the difficulties encountered in adapting single residue methods to multi-residue methods. The importance of suitable detection systems for determination of benzimidazoles, namely, screening, HPLC, GC and confirmatory methods is described in detail. The future for benzimidazole residue analysis is discussed, focusing on selection of appropriate residues for screening methods and protocols for confirmation of benzimidazole residues.