Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) play a key role in the detoxification of phytochemicals in arthropod herbivores. We present here an overview of recent progress in understanding the breadth and specificity of gene expression plasticity of P450s in response to phytochemicals. We discuss experimental setups and new findings in mechanisms of P450 regulation. Whole genome transcriptomic analysis of arthropod herbivores, either after direct administration of phytochemicals or after host plant shifts, allowed to integrate various levels of chemical complexity and lead to the unbiased identification of responsive P450 genes. However, despite progress in identification of inducible P450s, the link between induction and metabolism is still largely unexplored, and to what extent the overall response is biologically functional should be further investigated. In the near future, such studies will be more straightforward as forward and reverse genetic tools become more readily available.