The different management regimes on grassland soils were examined to determine the possibilities for improved and/or changed land management of grasslands in Flanders (Belgium), with respect to article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Grassland soils were sampled for soil organic carbon (SOC) and for bulk density. For all grasslands under agricultural use, grazing and mowing + grazing led to higher SOC stocks compared with mowing, and grazing had higher SOC stocks compared with mowing + grazing. Overall, 15.1 +/- 4.9 kg OC m(-2) for the clayey texture, 9.8 +/- 3.0 kg OC m(-2) for the silty texture, and 11.8 +/- 3.8 kg OC m(-2) for the sandy texture were found for grassland under agricultural use to a depth of 60 cm. For seminatural grasslands, different results were found. For both the clayey and silty texture, mowing and mowing + grazing led to higher SOC stocks compared with grazing. The clayey texture had a mean stock of 15.1 +/- 6.6, the silty texture of 10.9 +/- 3.0, and the sandy texture of 12.1 +/- 3.9 kg OC m(-2) (0-60 cm). Lower bulk densities were found under grazed agricultural grassland compared with mown grassland but for seminatural grassland, no clear trends for the bulk density were found. The best management option for maintaining or enhancing SOC stocks in agricultural grassland soils may be permanent grazed grassland. For seminatural grassland, no clear conclusions could be made. The water status of the sampled mown fields was influencing the results for the clayey texture. Overall, the mean SOC stock was decreasing in the order clay > sand > silt. The higher mean SOC concentrations found for the sandy texture, compared to the finer silty texture, may be explained by the historical land use of these soils.